Выберите нужное слово или словосочетание.

1. As far as the material is concerned, the building can be divided into stone (or brick), … and concrete types.

a) gravel b) plastics c) wood

2. Both the substructure and the superstructure help to support the … of the building.

a) width b) weight c) light

3. In some regions, the … of a building is important if the structure is to withstand storms.

a) live load b) snow load c) wind load

4. … foundations are long, slender columns of steel, concrete, or wood.

a) pile b)spread c) mat

5. Mat foundations are thick slabs of reinforced … that span the whole area beneath a building.

a) asphalt b) cement c) concrete

6. Pier foundations are heavy columns of … that go down through the loose topsoil to a bed of firm rock.

a) steel b) concrete c) wood

Вставьте нужные слова.

pier, heat, foundation, spread, live load

1. The substructure is usually called the foundation.

2. The buildings made of stone or brick are durable, fireproof and have poor heat conductivity.

3. Thelive load is the weight of the furniture, equipment, stored material, and occupants of a building.

4. Spread foundations are not as firm as those based on solid rock.

5. Pier foundations are heavy columns of concrete that go down through the loose topsoil to a bed of firm rock.

Сделайте краткое изложение текста. Делайте это в соответствии со следующим планом.

1. The title of the text is…2. The text is devoted to …3. It consists of …4. The first passage deals with…5. The second (third, forth, etc.) passage deals with…6.The main idea of the text is…

Text B. Elements of a Building. Load-Carrying Frame

Notes:

bearing wall - несущая стена

skeleton construction - каркасное здание; каркасная конструкция

beam - балка, брус, прогон

girder - ригель; балка; (балочная) ферма; прогон

joist - балка перекрытия (обычно второстепенная); лага; перекладина

purlin - обрешетина крыши; прогон

truss - ферма; сквозная ферма; решётчатая ферма; стропильная ферма;

stud - стойка (каркаса); косяк; свая

Текст Б. Элементы здания. Несущий каркас.

1. What is the frame? Что такое корпус? The frame is the skeleton around which the rest of the house is built.

2. What are the two main types of frame? Каковы два основных типа корпусов? Bearing-wall constructions and skeleton constructions.

3. What type of construction is better to use for skyscrapers? Какой тип строительства лучше использовать для небоскребов? Skeleton construction is better for taller buildings.

4. Which frame are the strongest and the most expensive? Какой из каркасов самый прочный и самый дорогой? Steel structural frames are the strongest and the most expensive.


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